Understanding rate limiter and Implementing rate limiter with Flask.
Introduction to Rate Limiting:
Rate limiting is used to control the amount of incoming and outgoing traffic to or from a network. For example, let’s say you are using a particular service’s API that is configured to allow 100 requests/minute. If the number of requests you make exceeds that limit, then an error will be triggered. The reasoning behind implementing rate limits is to allow for a better flow of data and to increase security by mitigating attacks such as DoS.
Rate limiting also comes in useful if a particular user on the network makes a mistake in their request, thus asking the server to retrieve tons of information that may overload the network for everyone. With rate limiting in place however, these types of errors or attacks are much more manageable.
Types of Rate Limits
There are various methods and parameters that can be defined when setting rate limits. The rate limit method that should be used will depend on what you want to achieve as well as how restrictive you want to be. Different types of rate limiting methods that you can implement.
- User rate limiting: The most popular type of rate limiting is user rate limiting. This associates the number of requests a user is making to their API key or IP (depending on which method you use). Therefore, if the user exceeds the rate limit, then any further requests will be denied until they reach out to the developer to increase the limit or wait until the rate limit timeframe resets.
- Geographic rate limiting: To further increase security in certain geographic regions, developers can set rate limits for particular regions and particular time periods. For instance, if a developer knows that from midnight to 8:00 am users in a particular region won’t be as active, then they can define lower rate limits for that time period. This can be used as a preventative measure to help further reduce the risk of attacks or suspicious activity.
- Server rate limiting: If a developer has defined certain servers to handle certain aspects of their application then they can define rate limits on a server-level basis. This gives developers the freedom to decrease traffic limits on server A while increasing it on server B (a more commonly used server).
Scaling your API with rate limiters:
Rate limiting can help make your API more reliable in the following scenarios:
- One of your users is responsible for a spike in traffic, and you need to stay up for everyone else.
- One of your users has a misbehaving script which is accidentally sending you a lot of requests. Or, even worse, one of your users is intentionally trying to overwhelm your servers.
- A user is sending you a lot of lower-priority requests, and you want to make sure that it doesn’t affect your high-priority traffic. For example, users sending a high volume of requests for analytics data could affect critical transactions for other users.
- Something in your system has gone wrong internally, and as a result you can’t serve all of your regular traffic and need to drop low-priority requests.
Using different kinds of rate limiters :
Different types of limiters in production. The first one, the Request Rate Limiter, is by far the most important one. We recommend you start here if you want to improve the robustness of your API.
Request rate limiter
This rate limiter restricts each user to N requests per second. Request rate limiters are the first tool most APIs can use to effectively manage a high volume of traffic.
Our rate limits for requests is constantly triggered. It has rejected millions of requests this month alone, especially for test mode requests where a user inadvertently runs a script that’s gotten out of hand.
Our API provides the same rate limiting behavior in both test and live modes. This makes for a good developer experience: scripts won’t encounter side effects due to a particular rate limit when moving from development to production.
After analyzing our traffic patterns, we added the ability to briefly burst above the cap for sudden spikes in usage during real-time events (e.g. a flash sale.)
Concurrent requests limiter
Instead of “You can use our API 1000 times a second”, this rate limiter says “You can only have 20 API requests in progress at the same time”. Some endpoints are much more resource-intensive than others, and users often get frustrated waiting for the endpoint to return and then retry. These retries add more demand to the already overloaded resource, slowing things down even more. The concurrent rate limiter helps address this nicely.
Our concurrent request limiter is triggered much less often (12,000 requests this month), and helps us keep control of our CPU-intensive API endpoints. Before we started using a concurrent requests limiter, we regularly dealt with resource contention on our most expensive endpoints caused by users making too many requests at one time. The concurrent request limiter totally solved this.
It is completely reasonable to tune this limiter up so it rejects more often than the Request Rate Limiter. It asks your users to use a different programming model of “Fork off X jobs and have them process the queue” compared to “Hammer the API and back off when I get a HTTP 429”. Some APIs fit better into one of those two patterns so feel free to use which one is most suitable for the users of your API.
Fleet usage load shedder
Using this type of load shedder ensures that a certain percentage of your fleet will always be available for your most important API requests.
We divide up our traffic into two types: critical API methods (e.g. creating charges) and non-critical methods (e.g. listing charges.) We have a Redis cluster that counts how many requests we currently have of each type.
We always reserve a fraction of our infrastructure for critical requests. If our reservation number is 20%, then any non-critical request over their 80% allocation would be rejected with status code 503.
We triggered this load shedder for a very small fraction of requests this month. By itself, this isn’t a big deal—we definitely had the ability to handle those extra requests. But we’ve had other months where this has prevented outages.
Worker utilization load shedder
Most API services use a set of workers to independently respond to incoming requests in a parallel fashion. This load shedder is the final line of defense. If your workers start getting backed up with requests, then this will shed lower-priority traffic.
This one gets triggered very rarely, only during major incidents.
We divide our traffic into 4 categories:
- Critical methods
- Test mode traffic
We track the number of workers with available capacity at all times. If a box is too busy to handle its request volume, it will slowly start shedding less-critical requests, starting with test mode traffic. If shedding test mode traffic gets it back into a good state, great! We can start to slowly bring traffic back. Otherwise, it’ll escalate and start shedding even more traffic.
API Rate Limiting / API Throttling
start looking at and end to end scenario, you first have an overall limit of calls
your backend can process per time unit. This is often measured by TPS
(Transaction per Second). In some cases, systems might also have a physical
limit of data that can be transferred in Bytes. For example your backend might
be able to process 2000 TPS (Transaction per Second). This is called Backend Rate
Very often multiple clients get an overall rate limit they are allowed to send called Application Rate Limiting. If they are starting to send too many requests, their connection gets throttled which means the processing slows down but does not disconnect. This allows to keep the connection open and help with keeping errors down. There is a risk of connections timing out and for sure you risk to keep connections longer which might open a vector for Denial of Service Attacks.
Sometimes you want to enable a single client to send more than its actual limit because your system has bandwidth or is idle. This is called API peak. Sometimes clients cannot control the API calls that are emitted. This is where API burst can help. It allows your client to send a certain amount of traffic more than usual. For example you allow your client to send 20 TPS but they send 30 transactions which process very fast. Maybe your systems are able to consume the load. From an implementation perspective, Leaky Bucket might be a known algorithm.
Looking more at a
commercial aspect and long term consumption of calls and data, API quotas are
used a lot. API quotas usually describe a certain amount of calls for longer
intervals. For example your API quota might be 5.000 calls per month. Remember
that this could be combined with a rate limit or throttling setup e.g. 20 TPS
(Transactions per Second).
To enforce an API quota you need to identify the client or consumer, therefore the term user quota (aka organization quota) is used. Usually this is where API Management solutions help. Consumers come in, select a certain plan which has a quota attached. Quite often you also find a SLA attached which defines the response times and availability of the service. This is important from a consumer side but it’s also important for the provider to keep an eye on when the API is your product.
If you look inside API quota in detail you can also imagine that you not only set a limit based on an overall client / consumer but also on a per consuming application level (e.g. per API Key), this is what we call application quota. But even further you could go and limit certain methods or calls. Reason for this might be that those calls would consume more compute power on your backend.
Rate Limit Implementation
There are various ways to go about actually implementing rate limits. This can be done at the server level, it can be implemented via a programming language or even a caching mechanism. The two implementation examples below show how to integrate rate limiting either via Nginx or Apache.
If you’re using Nginx as your web server and would like to implement rate limiting at the server-level then you can take advantage of the module ngx_http_limit_req_module. This can be implemented directly within your Nginx configuration file. Using this method, Nginx rate limits based on the user’s IP address.
The snippet above allows not more than 2 request per second at an average, with bursts not exceeding 5 requests.
Similarly, Apache users can also implement rate limiting within the Apache configuration file using more or less the same method as Nginx users. With Apache, the module: mod_ratelimit must be used in order to limit client bandwidth. Throttling is applied to each HTTP response instead of being aggregated at the IP/client level.
The values in the snippet above are defined in KiB/s. Therefore the rate-limit environment variable, used to specify the connection speed to be simulated is 400KiB/s while the initial amount of burst data is 512KiB/s.
Implementation of Rate Limiter Using Flask:
Download Python 3 package on www.python.org
Step-1 :After downloaded Python3 package run the downloaded Python3 package, and you will see the first screen, check the checkbox “Add Python 3.6 to PATH” in bottom option and then click on “Install Now“.
Step-2 :In this screenshot you will see “Disable path length limit“, Don’t worry this change won’t break anything but will allow Python to use long path names, it can help smooth over any path-related issues you might have while working in windows, click on that.
Step-3:Now you will see this screen.
Congratulations ! Now you have Python3 on your computer.
Installation of Flask:
To install flask you can go here or just follow below steps:
Step1: Install virtual environment
If you are using Python3 than you don’t have to install virtual environment because it already come with venv module to create virtual environments.
Step 2: Create an environment
Create a project folder and
Your shell prompt will change to show the name of the activated environment.
Within the activated environment, use the following command to install Flask:
Within the activated environment, use the following command to install limiter:
Implementation of Rate Limiter Using Python Scripts:
a.)Implementation of the Rate Limiter of 4 Request per day.
b.)Implementation of the Rate Limiter of 1 Request per minute
An alternative approach to rate limiting:
It combines a few standard techniques to control the rate at which people issue requests to your server, and it’s relatively accurate, simple, and space-efficient. If you’re a company building web applications at consumer scale, our rate limiter can prevent users from harming your website’s availability with a spate of requests. It also happens to be great at stopping spam attacks, as we discovered.
For those unfamiliar, a rate limiter caps how many requests a sender — this could be a user or an IP address — can issue in a specific window of time (e.g. 25 requests per minute). In Figma’s case, it also needed to:
- store data externally so that the multiple machines running our web application could share it
- not appreciably slow down web requests
- efficiently eject outdated data
- accurately limit excessive use of our web application
- use as little memory as possible
The first three requirements were easy to meet. At Figma, we use two external data stores — Redis and PostgreSQL — and Redis was the better location to save tracking data. Redis is an in-memory data store that offers extremely quick reads and writes relative to PostgreSQL, an on-disk relational database. Even better, it’s simple to specify when Redis should delete expired data.
Finding a way to satisfy the last two requirements — accurately controlling web traffic and minimizing memory usage — was more of a challenge. Here are the existing rate limiter implementations I considered:
- Token bucket
- Fixed window counters
- Sliding window log
6 thoughts on “Rate Limiter”
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